APFActive Power Filter
Active Power filters (APF) are the ultimate answer to power quality problems caused by waveform distortions, low power factor, voltage variations, voltage fluctuations and load unbalance for a wide range of segments and applications.
They are a high performance, compact, flexible, modular and cost-effective type of active power filters (APF) that provide an instantaneous and effective response to power quality problems in low or high voltage electric power systems.
They enable longer equipment lifetime, higher process reliability, improved power system capacity and stability, and reduced energy losses, complying with most demanding power quality standards and grid codes.
EMES E-Series and H-Series active power filter connectes in parallel in power grid, to detect the harmonic wave in power grid in real time, generate the reverse-phase compensation current through the converter, and dynamically filter the harmonic wave in power grid. The operation of the filter is unaffected by power grid structure and load type, and it will not produce harmonic oscillation with the system, thus perfectly realizing harmonic wave control of various loads.
APFs eliminate waveform distortions from the load like harmonics, interharmonics and notching, and harmonic voltages caused by harmonic currents, by injecting in real-time the distorted current of the same magnitude but opposite in phase in the electric power system. In addition, APFs can take care of several other power quality problems by combining different functions in a single device:
- Elimination of harmonic currents and voltages.
- Power factor correction (lagging or leading).
- Voltage variations (sags & swells) reduction.
- Voltage fluctuations (flicker) mitigation.
- Load balancing in three-phase systems.
- Controlled & selectionable harmonic generatiation
- Energy savings
- Higher productivity
- Reliable plant operation at reduced maintenance costs
- Longer lifetime of electrical and process equipment
- Additional electric capacity in existing electrical network
- Compliance with IEEE 519, G5/4, IEC 61000 3-2, 3-4 or any other power quality standards and recommendations
- Quick return on investment
Harmonic voltages and currents are caused by non-linear loads such as variable speed drives (VSD), uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), low energy lighting and switched mode power supplies in devices such as personal computers. Non-linear loads generate electrical harmonics by drawing current in abrupt short pulses, rather than in a smooth sinusoidal manner, introducing currents of additional frequencies which are reflected back into the system, distorting the AC waveform. Harmonics increase the amount of power required by the system due to a reduction in power quality, contributing to a lower power factor and higher energy costs as a result of the reduced efficiency of the system. Harmonic filtering acts to filter out the electrical harmonics in a system. This can reduce overheating of equipment, reduce nuisance tripping of circuit breakers and fuses and improve power quality contributing to reduced energy costs.
EM Energy Solutions E and H series active power filters are built on most modern power electronics technology. E-series active power filters deliver a real time response to mitigate harmonics up to 50th order enabling compliance with global power quality standards. An ideal solution for space constrained applications, the modular and compact design, the auto-voltage sensing features and the customisable 7” Human Machine Interface (HMI) provide:
- Small footprint and low acquisition and life-cycle costs
- Ease of integration
- Unlimited scalability
- Efficient commissioning, control and reporting
In addition to active harmonic filtering, EMES active filters can also be used for voltage stabilization, power factor improvement, flicker mitigation and load balancing applications.
The illustration above shows the principal diagram of the state-of-the-art 3-level PWM inverter is constructed compared to conventional 2-level PWM inverter. From the PWM graph, we see that 3-level technology is much better suited to modulate a sine wave compared to the 2-level traditional technology.